At first first sight,
chemical and mechanical changes for having been exposed to the natural weather,oxidation and calcification for very long time.


typical characters including production and the using traits with salient features from the old age.

1. Cavity within the characters strokes is deep.
2. There were some casting brokes in the strokes and some small holes due to the sand casting mold.
3. The subtil filing marks.
4. The vestige of old vermilion traits, the abrasion at the ends, tips and edges obviously caused from frequent use.


Most importantly,
The body was cast separately with the handle, and then they were re-cast together.


the total form is formal for the official seal in Southern Song Dynasty.


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